Scientific Program

Conference Series Ltd invites all the participants across the globe to attend 2nd International Conference and Expo on Biomechanics and Implant Design Las Vegas, Nevada, USA.

Day 2 :

  • Biomechanical Materials and Implant Designs

Session Introduction

Ann M Simon

Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, USA

Title: Towards clinically viable control of a powered knee-ankle prostheses

Time : 10:00-10:25

Speaker
Biography:

Ann Simon is the Biomedical Engineering Manager in the Center for Bionic Medicine at the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, IL and a Research Assistant Professor in the Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation at Northwestern University. She received the BS degree in Biomedical Engineering from Marquette University, Milwaukee, WI, in 2003. She received the MS degree in Mechanical Engineering and PhD degree in Biomedical Engineering from the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, in 2007 and 2008, respectively. Her research is focused on overcoming clinical challenges associated with the application of advanced pattern recognition myoelectric control systems for both upper- and lower-limb amputees.

Abstract:

Lower limb amputation affects an individual’s ability to efficiently perform activities of daily living. For individuals with high levels of amputation, such as a trans-femoral amputation, this impact can be much greater since they must rely on a mechanical substitute for their knee and ankle joints. Powered prosthetic legs are an emerging category of devices that are becoming commercially available but their control needs to be further refined for clinical viability. This talk will highlight several of the advances we have made to provide users with natural, intuitive, and robust control of a powered prosthesis. For example, we developed a new user-modulated control strategy that enables improved control of powered knee-ankle prosthesis during sit-to-stand movements. Allowing transfemoral amputees more control over the timing and rate of knee and ankle power generation enabled standing and sitting with their weight distributed more equally between limbs. To provide seamless transitions between weight-bearing activities, we created an ambulation mode intent recognition system that incorporates neural information in combination with mechanical sensors. Electromyographic (EMG) signals, or muscle activity patterns, have been used for decades to control upper limb prostheses and, for lower limb applications, can provide data on how a person intends to use their device (e.g., whether the individual intends to walk or climb stairs).The successful implementation of these control strategies is an exciting step towards providing improved control of a powered prosthesis, potentially making ambulation and other activities of daily living easier for trans-femoral amputees.

Lubna Sheik

Council of Scientific and Industrial Research-NML/IICB, India

Title: Nanomaterials for bone repair and regeneration

Time : 10:25-10:50

Speaker
Biography:

Lubna Sheikh is in her 4th year of PhD currently, working in CSIR-IICB and CSIR-NML. She is working on biomaterials for biomedical application. Topic of her research is nanohydroxyapatite for bone repair. She has published 7 papers in reputed journals. Her main work is on the synthesis and charcterization of these nanoparticles. They have proved to be promising candidate after in vitro and in vivo tests.

Abstract:

Bioactive materials are currently at the cutting edge of regenerative medicine due to the foreseeable need for bone tissue regeneration as an effective way to improve the current medical practice of bone replacement. Alliance of Nanotechnology to stimulate coordinate research in biology, engineering and materials science to push medical science forward is of demand. Bone is a nanocomposite composed of organic and inorganic components with hierarchial structure ranging fron nano to macroscale. Generally clinical repair and reconstruction of bone defects can be conducted using autologous and allogenic tissues and alloplastic materials but these have there own fuctional limitations. And therefore designing and developing of biomaterial for bone repair and regeneration without necrosis is a challenging area of research and demanding too. We report a room temperature, cost effective, one pot process to fabricate hydroxyaptite particles renging between 10-15 nm. This is possible by the involvement of biological systems as they offset thermodynamic limitations by establishing kinetic control on nucleation and growth of the crystals leading to the synthesis of phase pure and crystalline HA nanoparticles. Unique properties of these nanomaterials such as increased wettability and surface area, lead to increased protein adsorption when compaired with conventional biomaterials. Additionally these nanoparticles are biocompatible and invivo results have suggested that it also helps in the bone wound healing or repair on live rat models.

Speaker
Biography:

Y Raviteja has completed his MS (Orthopaedics) from NTR University of Health Sciences, Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh, India. He is presently doing Fellowship in Arthroplasty at Srikara Hospitals, Hyderabad.

Abstract:

Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate results of cemented bipolar hemiarthroplasty and dynamic hip screw fixation for comminuted intertrochanteric fractures in elderly and its efficacy in meeting the activities of daily routine. Study: Total 16 cases in which there was communited intertrochanteric fracture was present were taken and classified according to boyd and griffin classification. Among them 8 were operated with hemiarthroplasty with cemented bipolar prosthesis and 8 were operated with dynamic hip screw fixation after pre anaesthetic check up. Results: In cemented bipolar out of 8 cases 4 were excellent, 2 were good, 2 were fair. In dynamic hip screw out of 8 cases 2 were excellent, 3 were good 1 was fair and 2 poor. Complications noted in the study of cemented bipolar were 1 case of superficial wound infection, 2 cases of shorteningand 4 cases of abductor weakness with Trendelenburg gait. Complications noted in study of dynamic hip screw were 3 cases of implant failure 2 cases of nonunion 1 case of knee stiffness 1 case of superficial infection and 2 cases of varus angulation and one case died due to medical reasons. Conclusion: In conclusion primary cemented bipolar hemiarthroplasty in communited intertrochanteric fractures in elderly patients provides painless stable joint allowing the patients to ambulate early in the post-operative period minimizing the complications associated with prolonged recumbency. The results of dynamic hip screw were inferior when compared to cemented bipolar hemiarthroplasty for communited intertrochanteric fractures. As the study comprises only few patients there is need for randomized controlled trail with large numbers.

  • Bio-molecular Engineering
Speaker
Biography:

Annelis O Sánchez has completed her Baccalaureate degree at University of Puerto Rico- Rio Piedras Campus and is currently pursuing her PhD candidate at same institution. She had worked as a Chemist in several pharmaceuticals, and private companies. She has experience as a Chemist in a variety of interdisciplinary areas such as “Clinical, environmental, pedagogy and industrial”. She completed her internship at University of Texas in Austin, where she learned the basis of single particle detection methods.

Abstract:

During the last decades, single particle detection have opened a novel sight for doing electrochemistry. The possibility of detecting single biomolecules, differentiate between a single cancer cell in presence of healthy cells and detecting single viruses are envisioning steps toward the development of biosensor and novel techniques for better understanding of a human’s machinery. More recently, advances in single metal detection of nanoparticles, organic particles and oxide particles have been achieved. Studies in non-homogeneous solutions detecting an emulsion oil droplet has been accomplished. In this research, zero valent iron nanoparticles (nZVI) prompt to oxidation in aqueous media, are detected and characterized by electrochemical techniques using the emulsion droplet single particle approach. During the experiment, it is expected to observe current blips as a result of a current increase when the electroactive modified drop reaches the electrode. ZVI particles are known to be ion sequesters and are used for environmental remediation. Due to this behavior, the nZVI particles are a promising alternative to heavy metal poisoning. Because cancer cells are known to have a higher iron requirement than healthy cells, this fundamental research elucidates how an iron-based cancer biosensor would work. Emulsion oil droplet experiment results can be used to forecast the cell behavior in presence of nZVI. Applications for fundamentally drifted experiments aim to elucidate and characterize novel nanomaterials that are currently used.

  • Biomechanical Materials and Implant Designs

Session Introduction

Yeon-wook Kim

Keimyung University, Republic of Korea

Title: The effect of porosity on mechanical properties of Ti-Ni biomaterials
Speaker
Biography:

TiNi shape memory alloy fibers were prepared by a melt overflow process. The martensitic transformation starting temperature of B2→B19’ in the rapidly solidified fibers was 19°C. Cylindrical billets of Ni-rich Ti-Ni alloy with 75% porosity were produced by a vacuum sintering technology using as-cast alloy fibers. The mechanical properties and shape memory properties of the highly porous Ti-Ni alloy is investigated using a compressive test. The plateau of the stress-strain curve was observed at about 7 MPa and resulted in 8% elongation associated with stress-induced B2→B19’ transformation. Because of the high porosity of this specimen, the elastic modulus of about 0.95 GPa could be obtained. It was also found that a recovered strain was 5.9% on heating after the compressive deformation. This recovery of the length is ascribed to the shape memory effect which occurs during the martensitic transformation.

Abstract:

Yeon-wook Kim is currently a Professor of Department of Advanced Materials Engineering in Keimyung University, Korea. He is in the Review Board of National Research Foundation of Korea. He has completed his PhD in Materials Science and Engineering from University of Wisconsin-Madison. He studies on the effect of rapidly solidification processing on the martensitic transformation behaviors of Ti-based shape memory alloys. His special interests are in fabrication of porous materials for biomaterials using the rapidly solidified powders and fibers of Ti-based shape memory alloys. He has published more than 90 papers in reputed journals.

  • Bio-Systems Engineering

Session Introduction

Nadja E Solis-Marcano

University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras Campus, Puerto Rico

Title: Electrochemical Protocol for polyketide synthase multienzyme (pks) genomic Island Identification
Speaker
Biography:

Nadja E Solis-Marcano is pursuing her PhD at University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras campus. She is currently working with “The development of electrochemical biosensors for the detection of deseases with the characteristics of easy handling, fast detection and minimal use of reagents”. She is also interested in “The fabrication of custom microelectrodes for various applications”.

Abstract:

Colibactin is a genotoxin produced by the polyketide synthase multienzyme (pks genomic island) encountered in the human gut microbiota. Many studies link colibactin production to different kinds of cancers, therefore making it a molecule of interest in the biomedical research field. More specifically, certain strains of Escherichia coli have been found to harbor pks genomic island that induced DNA damage. Here, we developed a PCR mediated-electrochemical protocol to successfully identify the presence of the pks genomic island in DNA samples. For this, pks and non-pks containing E. coli DNA were impedimetrically analyzed before and after amplification through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol. Custom DNA primers were synthesized in order to selectively amplify a specific 400 base pair sequence from the clbN gene from the pks island. Impedance data showed a 97% increase in charge transfer resistance after the protocol was applied for the pks containing samples as opposed to the 15% increase for the non-pks containing DNA samples. Overall, effective identification of the pks genomic island was achieved.

Myreisa Morales Cruz

University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras Campus, Puerto Rico

Title: Carbon Based Microbial System for Ureolysis of Wastewater
Speaker
Biography:

Myreisa Morales Cruz completed her Bachelor Degree in Chemistry and Doctoral studies at University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras Campus. She has been awarded with PRLSAMP fellowship from NSF, and RISE fellowship from NHI, during her Doctoral studies. She is currently working on “Microbial ureolysis systems.

Abstract:

Scarcity of clean water is a common problem in many parts of the world. For this reason, water recovery from waste water is essential in the modern world. Major source of nutrients in waste water is urine, approximate 80% of nitrogen, 50% of phosphorus and 9% of the potassium. One of the limitations of reusing wastewater is the presence of urea. The removal of urea is difficult because its small size and lack of charge does not allow the use of common methodologies. This work presents an innovative technique that integrates the use of a carbon anode and a urease positive bacteria, Proteus vulgaris, for the removal of urea. The carbon electrode was modified with platinum nanoparticles for the oxidation of ammonia produced by the bacteria. The modification of the carbon electrode was done by immersion varying the exposition time in the ink and the way the electrode was dried. Cyclic voltammetry was done to characterize the platinum particles and the carbon electrode before and after the modification. SEM images were taken to determine if the Pt particles were dispersed and if the bacteria were attached to the carbon electrode. The carbon electrode was successfully modified when exposed overnight to the Pt ink. The SEM images showed bacteria adhered to the carbon surface.

  • Auditory Neurophysiology
Speaker
Biography:

Pavlovic I graduated from the Academie fur Horgerateakustik, Loebeck, Germany in 1999 with a degree in hearing aids acoustics. During his studies, he successfully completed weekly seminars at Siemens Audiology Technics, Germany (Fitting hearing aids in children) and at Phonak, Stuttgart (FM-systems), as well as a one-day course at the University of Frankfurt am Main (BAHA implants). In 2003, he established his company Slušni centar Pavlović d.o.o., and is the only professional in Croatia with a degree in Acoustics. In 2005, he worked on drafting of the Ordinance on indications and distribution of hearing aids for the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Croatia. This Ordinance has since been occasionally amended, but is still in force. His main contribution was defining the indications for two hearing aids. The company MedEL has authorized him to perform fittings for their implanted hearing aids, and he is the only professional in Croatia to have been given such authorization.

Abstract:

Introduction: Normal hearing is closely related to normal development of the language and speech as one of the most sophisticated functions of the human brain. Verbal expression includes emotions as well as non-verbal form of communication. Behaviour disturbance associated with hearing loss are often found. The aim of this study is to examine whether otitis media with effusion and associated hearing loss are related to the language development, academic achievement and behaviour. Methods: Cohort study included 23 male and 16 female outpatients who came for hearing test because of repetitively hearing loss or learning failure, hyperkinesias, lower rate of social adaptation and speech and language disorders. Tonal audiometry, tympanomtery and speech audiometry were performed repetitively every 7 days during the 3 weeks. Non-audiologic evaluation included psychological testing and speech language screening tests. Results: Bilateral conductive hearing loss and tympanograms of B type were present in all tested children. Speech audiometry showed pathologic level of speech discrimination for free sound field in all of tested children. At age up to 7 years, equal number of (11) female and (11) male have speech disorders and lack of concentration to the sound in general, speech and events around. At age of 8 or higher were much more male (12) than female (5) dominated cognition disorders, behaviour problems, learning disabilities and low rate and problems with social adaptation. Tested children in general have more readiness skills in literacy and math, and low scoring in recognizing incomplete words at school age 8 and above. Male children have more learning and behaviour disabilities at school age than females. Conclusions: Speech and language development are compromised in children with hearing loss associated with otitis media with effusion. Consequences of hearing loss are related to delay in language particularly articulation development with no differences between males and females. From 8y up to older ages hearing loss is more related with cognition disabilities, behavior disturbance and consecuticely social adaptation in high risk at male than female children.

  • Biomedical Engineering

Session Introduction

Diana C Diaz Cartagena

University of Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico

Title: Impedimetric Detection of Telomerase Activity in Cancer Cells
Speaker
Biography:

Diana C Diaz Cartagena is pursuing her PhD at University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras Campus. She works at Dr. Cabrera’s laboratory, a laboratory with interest in “Electrochemistry, interfaces and nanotechnology”. Her research project is focused on “developing a biosensor”.

Abstract:

Over the last decade, an increasing number of researchers have focused on developing rapid techniques based on biosensor technology for the detection of various human health related conditions. The use of this technology helps to detect early signs of the disease, such as cancer, in a short period of time with high efficiency. The number of cases diagnosed with this condition is increasing throughout the years due to the unhindered growth of abnormal cells partially caused by an enzyme called telomerase. This enzyme activates and elongates telomeres at the end of the chromosomal DNA, which causes cancer cells to become immortal. Telomerase is present in the vast majority of cancer types, therefore, serves as a biomarker. In this work, we developed a DNA biosensor using self-assembled monolayer technique for detection of telomerase activity in cancer cells. Specifically, we used a robust miniature DNA gold electrode as the sensing platform for the capacitive detection of enzyme binding and DNA elongation processes by telomerase utilizing electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. We measured changes in the capacitance when the surface was exposed to telomerase and to a DNA elongation inhibitor. Also, we studied how heat-shock affects the enzyme activity using charge transfer resistance as the sensing parameter. This system provides advantages in terms of simplicity, efficiency and cost of electrode design and will have a tremendous impact on the biomedical science, filling the absence of methods that can detect telomerase in a direct readout at the point-of-care location using lab-on-a-chip technology.